Multiple tariff (variable price) meters

Electronic meters[edit]

Electronic meters show the strength used on an LCD or LED display, and some can also transmit readings to remote places. In addition to measuring strength used, digital meters also can file different parameters of the burden and deliver consisting of immediately and maximum fee of usage needs, voltages, energy factor and reactive strength used etc. They can also help time-of-day billing, for instance, recording the amount of strength used all through on-height and rancid-peak hours.

Solid-kingdom design[edit]

 

Solid nation energy meter utilized in a domestic in the Netherlands.

As inside the block diagram, the meter has a strength supply, a metering engine, a processing and conversation engine (i.E. A microcontroller), and different upload-on modules inclusive of RTC, LCD, conversation ports/modules and so on.

The metering engine is given the voltage and modern-day inputs and has a voltage reference, samplers and quantisers accompanied by means of an ADC phase to yield the digitised equivalents of all the inputs. These inputs are then processed using a virtual signal processor to calculate the various metering parameters.

The biggest source of long-term errors within the meter is go with the flow within the preamp, accompanied by way of the precision of the voltage reference. Both of those vary with temperature as nicely, and vary wildly because maximum meters are outdoors. Characterising and compensating for these is a primary a part of meter design.

The processing and conversation section has the obligation of calculating the numerous derived quantities from the digital values generated with the aid of the metering engine. This also has the responsibility of communique using diverse protocols and interface with different addon modules related as slaves to it.

RTC and other add-on modules are connected as slaves to the processing and communique phase for diverse input/output functions. On a present day meter most if now not all of this can be implemented in the microprocessor, inclusive of the actual-time clock (RTC), LCD controller, temperature sensor, memory and analog to digital converters.

Applications[edit]

Electricity stores may also wish to price clients one-of-a-kind price lists at exceptional times of the day to better mirror the charges of era and transmission. Since it’s miles normally now not cost effective to shop vast quantities of energy for the duration of a period of low demand for use all through a duration of excessive call for, expenses will vary drastically depending at the time of day. Low cost generation capability (baseload) including nuclear can take many hours to start, meaning a surplus in times of low demand, whereas high cost however flexible generating ability (which includes gasoline mills) must be stored to be had to reply at a second’s observe (spinning reserve) to height call for, perhaps being used for a couple of minutes according to day, which could be very expensive.

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